Taniguchi began his career as an assistant of manga artist Kyota Ishikawa. He made his manga debut in 1970 with Kareta Heya (A Desiccated Summer), published in the magazine Young Comic.
From 1978 to 1986, he created several hard-boiled comics with the scenarist Natsuo Sekigawa, such as City Without Defense, The Wind of the West is White and Lindo 3. From 1987 to 1996, Taniguchi and Natsuo Sekigawa produced the 5-volume series Botchan no Jidai. In the 1990s, he came up with several albums, among which Aruku Hito (歩くひと?), Chichi no Koyomi (父の暦?), and Hitobito Shirīzu: Keyaki no Ki (人びとシリーズ「けやきのき」?).
In 1980-1983, he collaborated with Garon Tsuchiya for the manga Blue Fighter , Knuckle Wars and Live! Odyssey
He illustrated Baku Yumemakura’s works, Garouden from 1989-1990 and Kamigami no itadaki (The Summit of the Gods) from 2000 to 2003. The later received awards at the Angoulême International Comics Festival in 2002 and 2005.